What is fire protection?
Fire protection is the utmost priority in designing any type of building. Fire safety in buildings is determined by a number of factors:
- The provisions of means of escape of occupants
- The ability of a building to resist the effects of fire and to minimize the spread of fire and smoke
- The provision of means of access to enable firefighters to carryout rescue operations
Gyproc with subject expertise contributes in providing solutions for Passive Fire protection in the form of fire rated walls and ceiling systems, beam and column encasements etc. across all segments adhering to local code and standards.
Fire protection within a building can be categorised into two different types:
Active fire protection:
“Involves actively detecting smoke or fire and suppressing it on occurrence”.
Passive fire protection:
“It contains fires or slows down the spread of a fire via the use of fire resistance rated walls, floors, doors etc. for fire fighting activities to save lives and property”.
Achieving Fire Protection with PFP?
Methods of Passive Fire Protection
- Structural Steel Protection: Fire Foams, Cladding
The degree of protection required is determined by calculating the mass and surface area which helps establish the steel’s Heated Perimeter / Area factor or “Hp/A or Section factor”. The higher the Hp/A, the more the protection required to achieve the same fire rating; be it 30, 60, 90 or 180 minutes.
Inhibit a fire from rapidly spreading within the building by reducing the fuel available in the initial stages of a fire. This is achieved by dividing the building into a series of fire tight boxes termed compartments which form a barrier to the products of combustion; smoke, heat and toxic gases.
- Penetration Management
Sealing of gaps in Ducting and Joints with fire resistive sealants, fire dampers, intumescent paints etc.
Why PFP is Effective?
- Active fire protection operates when a fire breaks out. It includes detection and alarm systems, automatic sprinklers, fusible link doors and shutters, emergency lighting and smoke ventilation systems. The success of these systems depends on many external variables and thus the chance of failure persists; it could be due to damage to the operating valves, or simply ignorance in maintenance.
- PFP is generally built into the structure so that the building can withstand fire for a specified period. It protects the structure and the lives of its occupants in a fire by reducing or preventing the fire from spreading internally and externally, thereby maintaining the stability of the building and safe escape routes.
- PFP products and systems are named so, because they are considered to be always ‘switched on’ and do not require activating in order to fulfill their role. In contrast, active fire protection devices require some form of response and/or motion in order to work.
- A further differentiation being that active fire protection systems are added to the building after construction, as opposed to PFP being part of the building itself.
What is Fire Resistance Rating?
- Fire Resistance Rating is the term used to describe “the minimum fire resistance required by elements of a system in accordance with a specific calculation method verified by experimental data from standard fire resistance tests”.
- Fire Rating is assigned to a SYSTEM rather than a PRODUCT/ELEMENT individually.
- It is defined in Minutes- 30, 60,120min etc.
Gyproc & Passive Fire Protection
- The choice of materials for walls and ceilings can significantly affect the spread of fire and its rate of growth.
- Two properties of lining materials that influence fire spread are the rate of flame spread over the surface when it is subjected to intense radiant heating and the rate at which the lining material gives off heat when burning.
- The specification of linings is particularly important in circulation spaces where surfaces may offer the main means by which fire & prevent occupants from escaping.
- Ul certified board for fire rated systems.
|Characteristic||Test Standard||Remark||Performance of Gyproc Boards|
|Non-Combustibility||BS 476 : Part 4: 1970
BS 476 : Part 11: 1982
|Any material of density 300kg/m3 or more, which when tested , does not flame and the rise in temperature
on the furnace thermocouple is not more than 200C
|Surface spread of flame||BS 476 : Part 7: 1997||Materials are classified as Class 1,2,3 or 4.
Class 1 provides greatest resistance to surface spread of flame
|Fire Propagation||BS 476 : Part 6: 1989||Takes into account and rate of heat evolved by a specimen whilst subjected to
a specified heating regime in a small furnace.
A class 1 material which has a fire propagation index(i) of not more than 12 and sub-index (i1)of not more than 6.
|i < 6
Gyproc Fire Rated System
- Passive Fire protection systems from Gyproc India have been tested at nationally accredited laboratories, in accordance with BS 476
Where BS 476 :Part 20 :1987
To determine Fire resistance of a building element
- BS 476: Part 21: 1987
To determine Fire resistance of a loadbearing building element
- BS 476 : Part 22: 1987
To determine Fire resistance of a non-loadbearing building element
What is the area of application of Gyproc Fire Rated System?
Gyproc provides System solution with Fire rating from 30min to 4hr